ISSN:1306-7877

ENTRANCE OF AMERICAN IMPERIALISM INTO TURKEY DURING THE PERIOD OF THE REPUBLIC: THORNBURG REPORT


At theend of the World War II, Turkey required receiving both financial and technological support from the international platform toinitiate a new development phase. In 1947, hoping to get assistance for machinery and equipment, theTurkish Government requested USA to include Turkey in the Marshall Plan and asked for a 615 Million USD support under that scope. Turkey's request was found suitable by the USA Government which was a short period of time in international relations standards. Turkey was included in the Marshall Plan in July 1948 and two countries executed an Economic Cooperation Agreement. Hence, Thornburg Report was brought up under this agreement. An American delegation came toTurkey and moved to Ankara to conductits support programs in the following months. Thornburg, thehead of the delegation to prepare the report, was in 1947 in the oil exploration work in Bahrain. Thornburg, at that time visited Turkey and had information about the overall situation in the country. This Report involves two studies, titled as "How will Turkey rise?" in 1949 and "Turkey: An Economic Appraisal" in 1950, authored by Max Weston Thornburg from American Standard Oil Company together with Graham Spryand George Souleuponre views between 1949-1950. The Reports suggestmeeting the basic needs more after providing observations regarding the lack of qualified experts and consultants in Turkey, agricultural under developmentand falselyused manufacturing techniques. Following the observations of the backwardness of agriculture in the country and the misusedindustrial production techniques of the 20th century, suggestions were made tomeet the more basic needs. The Reports further suggest that there should be investments towards light industrial production, agricultural development, export-basedmining based on private enter prise and consumer goods to meet the road, water, electricity and similar needs of peopleliving in the rural area. Having a significant place in the development of Turkey, Karabük Iron and Steel facilities were criticized as being far from being beneficial. Furthermore, the Reports criticized the investments, done with the help of the USSR andemphasized that such support should be challenged. Regarding the proposed investments, it is recommended to take the America’said (capital investment, externaldebt/ credit, foreignaid) and refuge experience.


Keywords


Turkey, USA, Thornburg Report, Imperialism, Planning

Author : Güngör TOPLU - Prof. Dr. Yaşar Semiz
Number of pages: 455-484
DOI:
Full text:
Toplum Bilimleri Dergisi
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