Eski çağlarda flozoﬂar genel anlamda insan hayatnın nihai amacının “en yüksek iyi” olduğu düşüncesine odaklanmışlardı. Modern dönemde ise etk anlayış, bilimsel devrimlerin de etkisiyle değişerek çeşitlilik arz etmiştr. Bu çeşitli etk anlayışlar özünde insanın doğayla olan ilişkisini merkeze almaktadır. Bu çalışma modern çağın önemli flozoﬂarının etk hakkındaki görüşlerini teorilerle birlikte kısaca anlatmaktadır.
The modern age has created its own way of conceptualizing ethics (Poole, 1991). The ethical conceptualizaton of the Modern Age seems to embody the idea that the nature is a dynamic mechanism that is composed of each material being living in it. Such an approach can be clearly understood by the ratonal mind, and human behavior that conforms to the modern conceptualizaton of ethics seems to be predictable (Özlem, 2010). Ethical philosophy started to reshape in the seventeenth century and the label “modern” was stuck to it around this tme. The new shape of ethical philosophy, as opposed to “ancient” philosophy, began to be carved out of the ideas of the developing scholastc approaches and ethical theories. In the past, philosophical thought mainly dwelled on the noton that human life was a quest to atain the “highest good”. This meant that what was craved for was a satsfying life. And the key to a wholly satsfying life was virtue, which was thought to direct one’s connecton with others. Nonetheless, over tme, this assumpton has faded away to be replaced by a more ﬂexible approach, which holds that the asserton that there exists a highest good does not seem to be a feasible way to govern one’s relatons and moral life. According to Scheewind (2004), modern ethics seems to be fed by the emerging belief that assumes that there is no one single way of living for everybody. Simply put, unlike earlier philosophers, modern philosophers primarily depend on the good and bad of human behavior in their appreciaton. The search for the excellence or the ultmate human good does not seem to be a prominent issue in the accounts of ethical understanding today.