Manuscript Writing Rules

Manuscript Writing Rules

While editing the manuscripts, please take the MANUSCRIPT TEMPLATE as an example.

Manuscripts should meet the following criteria:

1. Page Layout

Sheet Size: A4 Vertical

Top Margin: 3 cm

Bottom Margin: 3 cm

Left Margin: 3 cm

Right Margin: 3 cm

Font: Cambria

Main Title: 12-point

Chapter and Subheadings: 12-point

Main Text: 11-point

Abstract: 10-point

Footnote text: Footnote can be added only in cases that require explanation (9-point).

Paragraph Spacing: Before 0 pt. - After 0 pt.

Indent: 1,25 cm

Line Spacing: Single (1)


2. Writing Rules:

a. Title: Main title should be compatible with the content. Titles of the main sections, references and appendices should be written in bold and capital letters. In the study, subheadings can be used to provide an information systematically and the headings can be numbered, if necessary. Only the first letters of the subheadings should be bold and capitalized. Authors should continue from the same line by placing a colon at the end of the subheadings.

b. Abstract: At the beginning of the article, there should be an abstract in Turkish consisting at least 150 and maximum 200 words and 150-250 words in English which concisely expresses the problem, purpose, importance, method, and findings/results of the research. Abstracts should be indented 1,5 cm both from the left and the right. Keywords consisting of at least 5 and at most 8 words should be given below the abstract. Keywords should be ordered from general to specific. The first letters of the keywords should have uppercase letters, the other letters should have lowercase letters and they should be separated by commas.

c. Extended Abstract: There should be an extended abstract consisting of at least 300 and at most 500 words and mentioning the purpose, method, findings, and results of the work. Extended abstracts should be prepared in English for Turkish articles; and in Turkish for articles written in English and Arabic. Extended abstract should be added after the conclusion of the article, before reference list. 

d. Main Text: Manuscripts should not exceed 11000 (eleven thousand) words and book reviews should not exceed 1000 (thousand) words. The parts that need to be emphasized in the text should be written in italic letters, not bold.

e. Tables and Figures: Tables should have numbers and titles. The number of the table should be written at the top, left-justified and vertical, the title of the table should be written italic with the first letter of each word capitalized. Tables should be in the appropriate places in the text. The number and the title of the figures should be centered just below the figure. The figure number should be written italic, ends with period; and the figure name should be written vertically with just first letter capitalized.

f. Details such as page numbers, headers and footers should not be included in the manuscripts.

g. Turkish Language Association’s spelling guide should be taken as a basis, except the situations that the article or the subject is compulsory in terms of spelling and punctuation.

h. Citing and Reference List: Citations and reference list should be arranged according to the rules stated below. Articles that are not edited according to the specified rules will be returned directly to the authors without being reviewed.


General Rules for In-Text Citations:

  • Footnotes should not be used in citing references.
  • Direct quotations contain more than 40 words, should be treated as block quotations. Start a block quotation on a new line and indent the whole block 0.5 in from the left margin. Quotation marks should not be used to enclose a block quotation.
  • When citing the works of the same author within the same year, such a way is followed; (Karataş, 2001a, Karataş, 2001b).
  • When citing multiple sources, author names should be given in alphabetical order. e.g. (Anar, 2019, p. 15; Ceylan, 1999, p. 38; Korkmaz, 2014, p. 71).
  • In multi-author publications, the name of the first author (Kaplan et al., 1999), if the publication cited is not accessible (Rabbitt, 1982, as cited in Lyon et al., 2014), if an oral source is used, information as Name, Surname, Date and Place of Interview should be added.
  • For a work with 21 or more authors, include the first 19 authors’ names, insert an ellipsis (...), but no ampersand, and then write the final author’s name.
  • When citing web resources, author name or name of group or name of institution and date should be given. 


The following points should be carefully considered when using in-text citations:

Books with One Author

Author Surname (Date of Publication, Page)

Karataş (2015, p. 80) ……….

Or ………. (Karataş, 2015, p. 80).


Books with Two Authors

Author Surname and Author Surname (Date of Publication, Page)

According to Çapcıoğlu and Karataş (2015, p. 80) ……….

Or ……………. (Çapcıoğlu and Karataş, 2015, p. 80).


Books with Three or More Authors

In studies with three or more authors, “et al.” abbreviation should be used after the first author’s surname.

First author’s surname et. al. (Date of Publication, page)

Karataş et. al. (2009, p. 46) ……………

Or …………………. (Karataş et. al., 2009, p. 46).



References should be given in accordance with APA 7 (American Psychological Association 7th Edition) standards. Some examples of references are given below (Retrieved from APA Style Common Reference Examples Guide, APA Style 7th Edition). More rules and examples are available at the Reference examples (


General Rules for References:

  • References should be given in alphabetical order.
  • Use the letter formats such as 2000a, 2000b for two or more sources of the same author in the same year and give them in alphabetical order.
  • When there are 21 or more authors, include the first 19 authors’ names, insert an ellipsis (but no ampersand), and then add the final author’s name.
  • There is no need to specify the 1st Edition of the books. For the second and subsequent editions, “2nd Ed.” abbreviation is used.
  • The abbreviation (Ed. and Eds.) is used instead of the editor(s).
  • Journal and book titles are written in italics without shortened.
  • Conference proceedings published in a journal or book follow the same format as for a journal article, edited book, or edited book chapter.
  • For unpublished dissertations and theses, the university name appears in the source element of the reference, whereas for published dissertations and theses, the university name appears in square brackets after the title. The type of the thesis also should be given after the title.
  • In electronic sources, in addition to basic information, access date and access address information are also given.
  • In electronic resources, the last update date is taken as the publication date.
  • Personal conversations such as letters, e-mails, phone calls do not need to be included in the references, the conversations are referenced in the text.
  • In Arabic articles, a reference list in Roman script should also be included. 
  • Use a hanging indent for all references, meaning that the first line of each reference is flush left and subsequent lines are indented by 0.5 in.



Do not include the publisher location in the reference.

Electronic books should be given in the reference like printed books. Unlike other books, Doi or access link should be added, if any.


Authored Book

Kaufman, K. A., Glass, C. R., & Pineau, T. R. (2018). Mindful sport performance enhancement: Mental training for athletes and coaches. American Psychological Association.

Edited Book

Schmid, H.-J. (Ed.). (2017). Entrenchment and the psyehology of language learning: How we reorganize and adapt linguistie knowledge. American Psychological Association; De Gruyter Mouton. 15969-000

Edited Book Chapter

Zeleke, W. A., Hughes, T. L., & Drozda, N. (2020). Home–school collaboration to promote mind–body health. In C. Maykel & M. A. Bray (Eds.), Promoting mind–body health in schools: Interventions for mental health professionals (pp. 11–26). American Psychological Association.



Lachner, A., Backfisch, I., Hoogerheide, V., van Gog, T., & Renkl, A. (2020). Timing matters! Explaining between study phases enhances students’ learning. Journal of Educational Psychology, 112, 841–853.



Gander, K. (2020, April 29). COVID-19 vaccine being developed in Australia raises antibodies to neutralize virus in pre-clinical tests. Newsweek.



American Psychological Association. (n.d.). Internet addiction. In APA dictionary of psychology. Retrieved April 24, 2020, from



World Health Organization. (2014). Comprehensive implementation plan on maternal, infant and young child nutrition.



Winthrop, R., Ziegler, L., Handa, R., & Fakoya, F. (2019). How playful learning can help leapfrog progress in education. Center for Universal Education at Brookings.



Horvath-Plyman, M. (2018). Social media and the college student journey: An examination of how social media use impacts social capital and affects college choice, access, and transition (Publication No. 10937367). [Doctoral dissertation, New York University]. ProQuest Dissertations and Theses Global.



Chandler, N. (2020, April 9). What’s the difference between Sasquatch and Bigfoot? howstuffworks.